7th Day

Madani Qa’dah Lesson by Lesson

revision of all Tasbeehaat Recitals of Salah – revision of all recitals

Revision of all rulings. 

Sunnahs and etiquettes of adornment

Listening to songs


Sacrificing for others

What are Iman and Kufr?

Madani Qa’dah/ Recitals of Salah

Note: To revise the recitals of Salah and the Tasbeehaat, see the syllabus of the previous days. 

Revision of all rulings

Note: To revise the rulings, see the syllabus of the previous days. 

The beautiful teachings of Islam

Dear Islamic brothers! Generally, people in this world like to eat good, dress good, live good, and look good. This is why food culture is increasing in the world, new designs and new types of clothing keep appearing, fancy residential projects are constantly being made, and the things that are being done to look good are not hidden from anyone. Everyone knows that generally everything has a limit, and as long as it remains within its limit it looks good. However, when it exceeds its limit it loses its beauty and becomes a cause of damage. This is why everything that is happening in the world today in the name of fashion and luxuries is not appropriate for any serious society, and this is why moral, economic and societal damages have crossed all limits across the world. The religion of Islam is an exceptionally pristine, excellent, and beautiful religion. Where it commands us to stay clean, it also teaches us to adopt adornment and to remain in a good state and appearance. However, alongside this it also teaches us to be balanced and to have consideration for the limits of Shari`ah. This is why we see manners and purity in Islamic rulings, and every intelligent and understanding person accepts this. Our Beloved Prophet showed us Islamic teachings by acting upon them himself, and he proved himself to be an example, role model, and symbol of progress for all Muslims, in fact all people for as long as the world remains. 

Allah Almighty says:

Translation of Kanz-ul-Iman: O believers! Enter Islam completely, and do not follow the footsteps of the Devil; indeed, he is your open enemy. (Part 2, Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayah 208)

It is stated in Tafseer Sirat-ul-Jinaan, ‘From the people of the book, Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Salaam and his companions accepted faith in the Holy Prophet, but continued implementing certain rulings from the Shari`ah of Sayyiduna Musa عَـلَيْـهِ الـسَّـلَام, such as honouring Saturday by not hunting on that day, refraining from the milk and meat of camels. They thought that these things are just permissible in Islam, it is not necessary to do them, whereas the Torah contains the command to refrain from these things, therefore in refraining from these things we will be acting upon the Torah without contravening Islam in any way. Upon this, this verse was revealed and the command was given to act upon the rulings of Islam fully, i.e. the rulings of the Torah have now finished, therefore do not pay attention to them. 

Remember, shaving the beard, wearing clothing like polytheists, and living one’s life like irreligious people is a sign of faith being weak. When you have become Muslim, act according to your religion in lifestyle and appearance, inwardly and outwardly, in worship and in dealings, in living manners and interactions, in life and death, and in business and employment. Furthermore, we also learn that for a Muslim to act according to another religion, or the adherents of another faith, is actually him falling for the deception of Satan.’ (Taken from Sirat-ul-Jinaan, vol. 1, pp. 324-325)

Let’s gain the blessing of learning some Sunnahs and etiquettes of adornment:

Sunnahs and etiquettes of adornment

It is not permissible for males to get their ears pierced and wear jewelry in them. Males and females are not permitted to wear a plait made from human hair, even if it made from the person’s own hair. A woman is permitted to wear a plait made from wool or black thread. Women can apply henna to their hands and feet. It is not permissible for men or boys to apply henna to their hands or feet. It can be applied to small girls. Ensure that you do not wear clothing with images of living beings. Do not apply stickers with images of animals or humans to your clothes or put them up in your home. Do not put clothes with images of animals or humans onto children either. Females can adorn themselves for their husbands within the four walls of their homes using permissible means, however getting ready in this way and then going in front of an unrelated male or roaming around unveiled outside is completely impermissible. It is not Sunnah to roam around bare headed, therefore Islamic brothers should certainly wear the Imamah (turban) which is a blessed Sunnah of our Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم(Taken from Sunnatayn aur Adaab, pp. 78-80)

It is permissible for women to wear mascara and black kohl for adornment. Women who file their teeth to make them beautiful, those who pluck their eyebrows to make them thin and beautiful have been cursed in the Hadees. If Allah Almighty has bestowed wealth on people, it is permissible in Islam for males and females to wear good clothing and expensive garments, as long as they do not do so out of pride, but rather with the intention of expressing the favour of Allah. (Jannati Zaywar, 406-407, summarised) It is Haraam for a male to wear a gold ring. The permissible ring for a male is one made of silver, containing one gem (not more than one or none at all), with the silver weighing less than 4.374g (the gem can be of any weight). It is only permissible for a male to wear one such ring, not more than one. Females can wear as many silver or gold rings as they want without any restriction on weight or number of gems. It is impermissible for males to wear a metal bangle, ring, or chain. 

(163 Madani Phool, pp. 29-32, summarised)

Listening to songs

Saying of Allah Almighty 

Translation of Kanz ul Iman: And some people buy words of amusement (i.e. fake stories, music, songs etc.) in order to mislead (others) from Allah’s path without understanding, and to make fun of it (i.e. the verses); for them is a disgraceful punishment. 

(Part 21, Surah Luqmaan, Ayah 6)

Scholars say, ‘Words of amusement include fake stories, tales and fables, magic, impermissible jokes, and music. It is also not allowed to sell instruments that are used for these things and buying them is also impermissible. Buying and selling impermissible novels, dirty magazines, cinema tickets, things used for impermissible shows etc. is also not allowed.’ It is stated further, ‘The noble scholars have mentioned this verse as evidence for music being Haraam.’ (Taken from Sirat-ul-Jinaan, vol. 7, pp. 457)

Three Ahadees about singing

  1. The Holy Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم said, ‘Music causes hypocrisy to grow in the heart like water makes fields grow. (Shu’ab-ul-Iman, vol. 4, pp. 279, Hadees 5100)
  2. In another Hadees, it is mentioned, ‘Whoever sat near a songstress to listen to a song, molten lead will be poured into his ears on the Day of Judgement.’ (Tareekh Dimashq, vol. 51, pp. 263)
  3. Similarly, in one Hadees it is stated, ‘In this nation, sinking into the earth, disfiguring, and being stoned from the skies will happen.’ It was asked, ‘When will this happen?’ The reply was given, ‘When songstresses and musical instruments become apparent and alcohol is drunk (openly).’ (Tirmizi, vol. 4, pp. 90, Hadees 2219)

What is the ruling on listening to songs?

Singing songs with musical instruments and listening to them are both Haraam. (Fatawa Razawiyyah, vol. 8, pp. 107)

Playing music and listening to music with interest causes hypocrisy to grow in the heart like water makes grass grow. (Mirat-ul-Manajeeh, vol. 5, pp. 428)

Harms of listening to songs

Dear Islamic brothers! Listening to songs is an act that causes the displeasure of Allah and His Messenger. Listening to songs makes the soul weak. Listening to songs makes the heart black. Listening to songs is an obstacle to becoming a complete Muslim. Listening to songs makes evil desires and evil thoughts form in the heart and mind. Listening to songs makes the mind of a person deviate and puts him on the wrong path. Listening to songs makes a person fall prey to impermissible love and eventually makes him good for nothing. Listening to songs increases depression and makes a person hopeless. Listening to songs develops an emotional state which can sometimes even lead to suicide. The eardrums of a person who listens to songs can become damaged and on the Day of Judgement molten lead will be poured into his ears. Nowadays songs also contain statements of disbelief which take a person out of the folds of Islam if he says them and this is the biggest harm. 

How to get rid of the habit of listening to songs?

Immediately delete all data consisting of songs and music from CDs, VCDs, memory cards, computer systems, social media accounts. Listen to recitation of Qur`an, Na’ts and Sunnah inspiring speeches instead of songs. You will attain religious and worldly benefits. Perform Zikr of Allah as much as you can, participate in gatherings of Zikr and Naat, as by means of this the dirt of the heart will be washed away and you will attain spirituality. Make it a habit to recite Durood Shareef at least 313 times every day, as by means of this you will attain the strength to stay away from sins. Immediately abandon the company of friends who like listening to songs and adopt the company of devotees of the Rasool, who like Zikr and Na’ts. Keep in mind that if our aches today, we find life extremely difficult, but if – Allah forbid – on the Day of Judgement molten lead is poured into our ears due to listening to music, what will become of us?! Also keep in mind the physical harms of listening to songs because listening to songs is in reality enmity to your own health. Worry about your faith because – Allah forbid – due to listening to songs your faith could be destroyed in which case you will be faced with destruction in this world and the hereafter. 

Note: To learn more about the harms and punishments of listening to music, study the books ‘Kufriyah Kalimaat Kay Baray Mayn Suwaal Jawaab’ and ‘Jahannam Mayn Lay Janay Walay A’maal’ both published by Maktaba-tul-Madinah.

Hasad (Jealousy)

The definition of Jealousy

The desire for someone’s worldly or religious blessing to be taken away or the desire for someone not to be given a certain blessing is jealousy. (Al-Hadiqah-tun-Nadiyah, vol. 3, pp. 34, abridged)

Saying of Allah Almighty

Translation of Kanz-ul-Iman: For what a miserable price they traded their souls, that they should disbelieve in that which Allah has revealed (the Quran) with this jealousy that Allah, out of His Grace, sends revelation on whomsoever of His bondsmen He pleases. Thus, they became worthy of wrath upon wrath and there is a humiliating torment for the disbelievers. (Part 1, Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayah 90)

The scholars say, ‘The Jews disbelieved in the Holy Prophet instead of believing in him, and purchasing disbelief instead of belief is a transaction of loss. From this every person should take a lesson that purchasing disbelief instead of belief, sins instead of good deeds, disobedience instead of obedience, and the wrath of Allah instead of His pleasure is a transaction full of loss. The Jews desired for the rank of the Finality of Prophethood to be given to someone from Bani Israel, however when they saw that they had not been given this rank and that this rank had been given to Bani Ismail, they rejected the Final Prophet and the book revealed to him (i.e. the Holy Qur`an) out of jealousy. From this we learn that the desire for status and position develops jealousy in the heart of a person and we also learn that jealousy is such an evil disease that can even take people to disbelief.’ (Taken from Sirat-ul-Jinaan, vol. 1, pp. 163)

Remember that jealousy is Haraam, however if someone spreads misguidance or irreligiousness through his money, wealth, influence, or authority, then the desire for his blessing to be taken away in order that people are saved from his tribulation is not jealousy and is not Haraam. (Taken from Sirat-ul-Jinaan, vol. 1, pp. 188)

Two Ahadees about Jealousy

  1. The Final Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم said, ‘Stay away from jealousy because jealousy consumes good deeds just as fire consumes dry wood or grass.’ (Abu Dawood, vol. 4, pp. 361, Hadees 4903)
  2. On one occasion, the Holy Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم said, ‘Jealousy destroys faith like aloe (the solidified sap of a bitter tree) ruins honey.’ (Jami’-us-Sagheer, pg. 232, Hadees 3819)

Some examples of jealousy

Seeing someone financially well-off band wishing for him to be robbed or burgled, for his shop or house to burn down, or for him to become completely penniless. Seeing someone at a high worldly or religious position and burning in jealousy, wishing for him to make a mistake so this position is taken away from him. Wishing for a particular well-off person to become poor and for him never to be financially comfortable again, wishing for a particular respectable person to lose his respect and for him to remain disgraced and humiliated forever. 

A sign of jealousy

Sayyiduna Ibn Sammak رَحْمَةُ الـلّٰـهِ عَـلَيْه says, ‘The sign of a jealous person is that he gets close to you due to greed and his bad character takes him away from you.’ (Tanbih-ul-Mughtareen, pp. 189)

The example of the jealous person is like the person who throws a stone at his enemy to hit him but the stone actually turns back on himself and hits him in the right eye, which gets injured. This makes him even angrier so he throws another stone, but that stone also turns back instead of hitting the enemy and hits him on his left eye which also gets injured. He then throws another stone which again turns back and this time strikes him on the head and cracks his head open. His enemy remains safe and sound and his other enemies look at his state and laugh at him. This is the case with the jealous person as Satan makes a mockery out of him in this way. (Kimiya-e-Sa’adat, vol. 2, pp. 614)

Jealousy is Haraam

It is stated in Tafseer Sirat-ul-Jinaan, volume 1, page 164, ‘Jealousy is Haraam (and a sin) and it is Fard to gain knowledge about this spiritual disease.’ 

Why does a person get jealous?

  1. Inferiority complex
  2. Not being content
  3. Abundant desires
  4. Hatred
  5. Anger

Jealousy and hatred are caused by anger. The explanation of this is that when a person gets angry but he swallows it because he doesn’t have the power to act on it, that anger goes back inside and becomes hatred and jealousy. (Az-Zawajir, vol. 1, pp. 124)

Some Cures to prevent jealousy

Repent sincerely in the court of Allah and make Du’a for your heart to always remain pure from jealousy. Remain content with whatever Allah has given you and be grateful to Him for it. Always keep the harms of jealousy in mind because no intelligent person gets involved with something that is harmful. Remember that the world is temporary and will not last forever; therefore, being jealous over worldly things is useless. When you see someone’s religious honour and fame, make Du’a for blessings for him because Allah Almighty has granted him this honour. Instead of looking at those who have more blessings than us, we should look at those who have less blessings than us. Instead of jealousy, have Ghibtah (which is to wish that the other person keeps the blessing and is blessed even more, as well as for yourself to be given the blessing) – say, ‘O Allah, You have blessed him. Grant him even more blessings and bless me as well.’ If the reason for being jealous is hatred, get rid of the cause of the hatred and develop the love of your fellow Muslim in your heart. Develop the habit of being happy in the happiness of others and this is a means of unity and harmony, and it destroys jealousy. Whenever you feel jealousy for anyone in your heart, recite اَعُوْذُ بِاللہِ مِنَ الشَّیْطٰنِ الرَّجِیْم and لَاحَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّۃَ اِلَّا بِاللہِ الْعَظِیْم   to remove this satanic thought. Sayyiduna Abu Darda رَضِىَ اللّٰهُ عَـنْهُ said, ‘Whoever remembers death in abundance, his jealousy and happiness will be removed.’ (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 8, pp. 167, Hadees 4)

Note: To learn more about jealousy, read the book published by Maktaba-tul-Madinah entitled ‘Hasad’.

Isaar (Sacrificing for Others)

Definition of Sacrificing for Others

Preferring someone over yourself in attaining a benefit or protecting from harm is called sacrificing for others. (Kitab ut-Ta’rifaat, pp. 31) Shaykh-e-Tareeqat, Ameer-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat دَامَـتْ بَـرَكَـاتُـهُـمُ الْـعَـالِـيَـهْ states on page 3 of his booklet ‘Madinay Ki Machli’, ‘The meaning of sacrificing for others is to prefer the wish and need of others over your own wish and need.’ 

A Verse of the Quran about sacrificing for others

Translation of Kanz-ul-Iman: ‘And they prefer those above themselves, even if they themselves are in dire need. And whoever is saved from the greed of his own-self, so it is only they who are successful.’ (Part 28, Surah Al-Hashr, Ayah 9)

Scholars say, ‘This verse contains great praise of the Ansari companions. Their state is such that they love those who migrated towards them and (practically proving this love) they let them stay in their homes, they make them equal partners in their wealth. They have no desire or want for the wealth which was given to those who migrated. They prefer those who migrated over themselves by sacrificing their wealth and their homes even though they themselves need wealth. Whoever’s ego was purified from greed is truly successful.’ (Taken from Sirat-ul-Jinaan, vol. 10, pp. 74)

A Hadees about sacrificing for others

Our Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم said, ‘Whoever desires something and then he leaves his desire and prefers someone else over himself, Allah Almighty forgives him.’ (Tareekh Dimashq, vol. 31, pp. 142)

Some Madani pearls for developing the habit of sacrificing for others

Keep in mind that sacrificing for others is a means of attaining forgiveness. If we can attain forgiveness by preferring someone else over ourselves, certainly this is a profitable deal. Keep the passion of becoming a perfect Muslim alive as a perfect Muslim is one who likes for others what he likes for himself. Make you mindset that if you give something you like to someone else then this is a great way of attaining goodness and the Quran has given this teaching. Think of sacrificing for others as an investment, the benefit of which you will attain in the hereafter multiplied manifold. Today you have a chance, don’t let the chance go to waste. Study the blessed biography of the Holy Prophet and the pious predecessors, as through this اِنْ شَــآءَالـلّٰـه you will develop a passion to sacrifice for others. Stay away from the company of stingy people and adopt the company of generous devotees of the Prophet who sacrifice for others, اِنْ شَــآءَالـلّٰـه you will benefit.

Note: To learn more about jealousy, read the book published by Maktaba tul Madina entitled Madinay Ki Machli.



The Favours of Allah

Dear Islamic brothers! Perhaps you have heard the phrase ‘Water is life’. Today, let’s learn about the meaning of this phrase. Water is amongst the things that we need the most in this world. Not just humans, animals, birds, insects, and trees all have a great need for water. More than 60% of a human’s body is made up of water and there are currently more than 7.7 billion people in the world from which it becomes clear that just human beings require billions of gallons of water. Not just this, according to some research, the number of animals in the world is 10 times more than the number of humans, and the number of birds is 100 times more, so based on these figures the importance of water increases manifold.  Water is not only necessary for humans, animals, birds and trees, but it is also essential in countless activities of this world. If there was no water, most activities in this world would not be able to proceed. The interesting thing is that the amount of water that we cannot even estimate is needed on a daily basis by the creatures of the world; however, the world only receives from one single source, which is rain. This is because 67% of the world is made up of oceans but we cannot drink this water or use is in many of our essential needs. Therefore, Allah Almighty has bestowed upon us the system of rain to fulfil our need for water. First of all, water evaporates from the ocean which then forms clouds. These clouds containing hundreds of thousands of tonnes of water then go towards the sky. Look at the power of Allah that there is no pipe line nor any motor, but such a huge amount of water is transported by the clouds from the earth to the sky and thus it is as though the clouds are like water tanks above our heads storing all this water. This is not all, the water than went from the oceans to the sky was not drinkable, however after going up that very same water turns sweet, blessed and pure without the help of any machine. Allah Almighty says, 

Translation of Kanz-ul-Iman: ‘And We sent down blessed water from the sky, so We produced gardens therewith, and grain that is harvested.’ (Part 26, Surah Qaaf, Ayah 9)

Then if the clouds filled with water, rose upwards and rained, those people who live near oceans would have got water, but those who are far away from the oceans or those in the approximately 49 land locked countries of the world which do not link to any ocean would not have got any water. Therefore, Allah Almighty blessed the world with the favour of the winds which push the clouds to those regions which do not have oceans nearby and in this way, everyone’s need for water is fulfilled. Another point to reflect on is that we use the water that we need, but what happens to the rest of the water? The answer is that the earth absorbs all that water by the command of Allah, which we then extract if needed by boring or by digging wells. It is the power of Allah that just like the pure water that falls from the sky, similar pure water comes from the ground after having been stored in it. Then when it gets very hot, the ground becomes dry, the water inside it finishes, and it doesn’t rain either. In this case how can the shortage of water be fulfilled? Allah Almighty arranges for this need in the winter as the rain that falls on the mountains becomes ice and the mountains form glaciers, then when the need arises during the summer, that ice melts and flows as water, fulfilling the needs of the people. The final point is that the world has existed for thousands of years but we are being given water free of charge for all that time and it never reduces either. As long as the world remains, water will continue to be attained free of charge and it will never reduce. 

Certainly, Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ has spoken the truth, ‘Translation: So, O mankind and Jinns! Which of the favours of your Lord will you both belie?’ (Part 27, Surah Ar-Rahman, Ayah 13)

The Greatness of my Prophet

The foster mother of the Holy Prophet, Sayyidah Halimah رَضِیَ اللّٰهُ عَنْهَا says, ‘When I brought the Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم into my home, there was no home from the homes of the Bani Sa’ad tribe from which the smell of musk did not emanate. The love of the Holy Prophet firmly embedded into the hearts of the tribespeople and they became so certain of his blessings that if anyone had any pain in his body they would place the blessed hand of the Holy Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم on that body part and by the command of Allah they would feel relief immediately. If any of their camels or goats became ill, they would pass the blessed hand of the Holy Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم over it and it would become healthy. (As-Seerah tul-Halbiyyah, vol. 1, pp. 135)

Dear Islamic brothers! Did you see how incredibly blessed the hand, and in fact the entire being, of our Beloved Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم is?! Whoever he placed his blessed hand on would be relieved of all pain, difficulty, sorrow, grief, and sadness, and wherever he was present, all areas of that place would become fragrant. 

اُن کی مہک نے دل کے غنچے کھلا دئیے ہیں

جس راہ چل گئے ہیں کوچے بسادئیے ہیں

جب آگئی ہیں جوشِ رَحمت پہ اُن کی آنکھیں

جلتے بجھا دئیے ہیں روتے ہنسا دئیے ہیں

اُن کے نِثار کوئی کیسے ہی رَنْج میں ہو

جب یاد آگئے ہیں سب غم بھلادئیے ہیں

میرے کریم سے گر قطرہ کسی نے مانگا

دریا بہادئیے ہیں دُر بے بہا دئیے ہیں

(Hadaiq-e-Bakhshish, pg. 101-102)

صَلُّوۡا عَلَى الۡحَبِيۡب            صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلٰى مُحَمَّد

Iman (Belief)

Iman refers to wholeheartedly accepting all of the necessities of the religion. The necessities of the religion are those issues which every elite and every normal person[1] knows, for example the oneness of Allah, the Prophethood of the Prophets, our Beloved Prophet being the Final Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم, Paradise and Hellfire being real, the establishment of the Day of Judgement and accountability, etc. As for those who live in remote areas or jungles or mountains and who are not even able to recite the Kalimah properly nor are they aware of the necessities of the religion, for them to be Muslim they must not reject any of the necessities of the religion and they must believe that whatever Islam consists of is true. It is condition for being a Muslim to not verbally reject any thing that is related to the necessities of the religion. Regarding a Muslim as a Muslim and a disbeliever as a disbeliever is from the necessities of the religion. The one who commits a major sin remains a Muslim and he will go to Paradise, either by means of Allah forgiving him through His grace and entering him into Paradise, or him attaining Paradise through the intercession of the Holy Prophet صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم, him being put into Paradise after being punished for his sins. However, a number of sinful Muslims will certainly be entered into Hellfire initially. (We pray to Allah for entrance into Paradise without accountability.)


Kufr (Disbelief)

Kufr refers to rejecting any one or all of the necessities of the religion. Doing an action that is clearly contrary to belief makes a person exit the fold of Islam and it is necessary on the one doing so to repent sincerely and recite the Kalimah to become Muslim again. Some actions of this type are:  - prostrating to an idol, the moon, or the sun – disrespecting any Prophet – disrespecting the Quran or the Kaaba – belittling any Sunnah – tying a Zunnaar (a string that some religions tie from the neck to under the armpit, and some Christians, Magians, and Jews tie around their back) – applying a qashqah (a mark applied by religions to their forehead) – following the religion practice of leaving a plait of hair on a child’s head as a vow – wearing a crucifix etc. Verbally claiming to be a Muslim whilst rejecting Islam in the heart is called Nifaaq (hypocrisy) and is pure Kufr. It is Kufr to doubt the Kufr of the one who commits explicit Kufr and who is definitely a Kafir (disbeliever) (i.e. someone who disrespected a Prophet, rejected the finality of Prophethood, wore a crucifix, prostrated to an idol, blasphemed against the Quran) 

Note: There is nothing in between Iman and Kufr. A person is either a Muslim or a Kafir; there is no third possibility of someone being neither a Muslim nor a Kafir. 


Shirk (Polytheism)

The meaning of Shirk is, ‘Considering anyone or anything other than Allah as worthy of worship, or considering anyone or anything other than Allah as necessarily existent (i.e. existing forever and impossible not to exist)’ in other words making someone or something a partner in Divinity is Shirk. Shirk is the biggest form of Kufr. Examples of Shirk are: Believing that idols are god, or small gods, or God’s helpers, believing that the soul has existed since forever (as is the belief of the followers of the Arya religion), prostrating to someone other than Allah considering them to be god, etc.

Scholars say, ‘It is also Shirk to believe that someone other than Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ has one of Allah’s attributes, such as knowledge, power (i.e. in the same way that Allah has knowledge or power) etc. for example saying ‘Prophets or Awliya have personal knowledge of everything we do just like Allah does’, or ‘Prophets or Awliya help us with their own personal power just like Allah does’, etc..’

The difference between Zaati (personal) and Ataai (bestowed)

Remember, believing in knowledge, power, authority and qualities for the Prophets and Awliya of Allah is not shirk, but rather is pure Islam, because these personalities are not God nor are they worthy of worship; whatever attributes they have are not their own personal attributes; rather they have been bestowed to them by Allah Almighty. Also remember that Allah Almighty grants his chosen servants knowledge, power, authority, qualities and astonishing miracles, and there is great wisdom of Allah in this, however upon attaining any of these things none of these personalities become God or worthy of worship. Muslims do not believe that anyone other than Allah is God, worthy of worship, or possesses knowledge, power, authority, or qualities without being given them by Allah. (Taken from Al-Haq-ul-Mubeen, pp. 41-43) 

Note: If Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ wishes, He will forgive any sinful person no matter how great his sins, however He will never forgive any Kafir or Mushrik (polytheist), and the abode of such people is Hellfire forever and ever, because Allah Almighty has expressed His Will that whoever dies upon disbelief will never enter Paradise and will remain in Hellfire forever. Allah is Truthful, there is no change in His Words, and He is Transcendent from oppression. He is the Master who bestows favours, grace, blessings and mercy, and the one who rebels against such a Lord deserves to be punished in the Hellfire forever.

Legal coercion

If someone makes the following threat, ‘Utter words of disbelief otherwise I will kill you or I will cut off a part of your body’ then in this case if you are sure that the person will go through with what he is threatening, it is permissible to utter words of disbelief, however even in this case it is necessary to remain firm on belief as you were before, i.e. it should be in your heart that I may be saying words of disbelief due to coercion but I am a staunch Muslim. 

Halal and Haraam

If something has been proven to be Halal with clear cut evidence, calling it Haraam is disbelief, and similarly if something is definitively Haraam, calling it Halal is disbelief. (Taken from Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, pp. 172-185)

Note: Whoever utters words of explicit disbelief, exits the folds of Islam. Remember, we cannot make the decision whether someone has become a Kafir as this is the job of scholars. If someone says something against the beliefs of Islam, ask Dar-ul-Ifta Ahl-e-Sunnat regarding it.

[1] Here, common person refers to the one who sit in the company of the scholars and have an interest in learning religious rulings.